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Jacobus Henricus van ’t Hoff, one of the founders of physical chemistry.Between 18 he elucidated the complex sequence of chemical reactions attending the precipitation of salts (evaporites) from the evaporation of seawater.Our hero or heroine meets someone who they seem to share a number of traits with.The story progresses, and they find themselves working together, at cross-purposes, or drawing together romantically. The reason our hero has found that other person uncannily familiar or compellingly attractive is that the new person is a Long Lost Relative they may never have known they had, or had believed gone forever.Another branch of experimental science relates to the deformation of rocks. Studies of the behaviour of rocks in the laboratory have shown that their strength increases with confining pressure but decreases with rise in temperature.

More recently the Norwegian petrologist Hans Ramberg performed many experiments with a large centrifuge that produced a negative gravity effect and thus was able to create structures simulating salt domes, which rise because of the relatively low density of the salt in comparison with that of surrounding rocks.These discoveries had a long-lasting influence on crystallography because they led to the development of the X-ray powder diffractometer, which is now widely used to identify minerals and to ascertain their crystal structure.Advanced analytic chemical equipment has revolutionized the understanding of the composition of rocks and minerals.These experiments are carried out at elevated temperatures and pressures that simulate those operating in different levels of the Earth’s crust.Thus the metamorphic petrologist today can compare the minerals and mineral assemblages found in natural rocks with comparable examples produced in the laboratory, the pressure–temperature limits of which have been well defined by experimental petrology. Bridgman developed a technique for subjecting rock samples to high pressures similar to those deep in the Earth.

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