Provide all possible means for validating

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Instead, the design of the bus cable, couplers, stubs, and terminals must provide a range of bus voltages between 1.4 and 20 volts peak-to-peak to all direct coupled stubs; and a range of voltages between 1.0 and 14 volts peak-to-peak to all transformer coupled stubs.

As explained below, maximum bus length is mostly a function of cable attenuation (which is based mostly on cable resistance), and the number of stubs and stub lengths.

If a BC or RT is babbling, and preventing the BUS to be used by other RTs, there is a watchdog timer in each device that will stop the babbling and flag the error so the alternate bus can be used.

The transformer are used for protection of the terminals.

The 1553 standards describe the functions of BC/RT/MT. Some device manufacturers have devices that can be configured as a BC or RT or MT.

Signal rise and fall times are secondary factors, since transmission over longer distances tends to filter the 1553 signals such that they more closely resemble 1 MHz and 500 k Hz sine waves, rather than trapezoidal waves.

According to paragraph 4.5.1.3 of MIL-STD-1553B, the maximum cable loss (attenuation) is 1.5 d B/100 feet at 1 MHz.

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