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And there are mantle–crust domains between, and within which, argon circulates during global tectonic processes, magma genesis, and mixing of crustal materials.This has significant implications for the validity of K-Ar and This paper was originally published in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Creationism, pp.Ruapehu (about 12 km to the south), Ngauruhoe is an imposing, almost perfect cone that rises more than 1000 m above the surrounding landscape.Eruptions from a central 400 m diameter crater have constructed the steep (33°) outer slopes of the cone.34 The Taupo Volcanic Zone, a volcanic arc and marginal basin of the Taupo-Hikurangi arc-trench (subduction) system,5 is a southward extension on the Tonga-Kermadec arc into the continental crustal environment of New Zealand’s North Island. Ngauruhoe in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, produced andesite flows in 19 and avalanche deposits in 1975.Potassium-argon “dating” of five of these flows and deposits yielded K-Ar model “ages” from Ar* content.
The lava flows were relatively viscous, some being observed at close quarters slowly advancing at a rate of about 20 cm per minute.4345 The August 18 flow was more than 18 m thick and still warm almost a year after being erupted.
Solid triangles are basalt-andesite volcanoes.15 11 North-northeast-trending normal faults with throws up to 30 m cut the volcanoes within the graben.
Nearly all vents active within the last 10 ka lie on a gentle arc which extends 25 km north-northeast from the Rangataua vent on the southern slopes of Ruapehu through Ruapehu summit and north flank vents, Tama Lakes, Ngauruhoe, Red Crater, Blue Lake, and Te Mari craters.
It is estimated that a minimum bulk volume of 3.4 million m of pyroclastic material was erupted in the seven-hour eruption sequence on that day.51 Fig. However, the temperature of these fumaroles in the crater floor has steadily cooled significantly since 1979, suggesting that the main vent is becoming blocked.
Field work and collection of samples was undertaken in January 1996.