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A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. But it was the distinguishing characteristic of Christianity that its moral influence was not indirect, casual, remote, or spas- modic. Gregory, many of the See a most admirable disserta- p. These numbers are, no doubt, tion on this subject in Le Slant, exaggerated ; see Wallon, Hist, de Lnaorvptions ohretiennes de la Gat Ue, VEkclavage, tome iii. {Hist, ibito 1' alienare i beni delle chiese.* de la Civilisation en France^ vii. Some viii.) Coimcils, however, recognised the ' See Finla^s Hist, of Greece, right of bishops to emancipate vo L i. the indigent were provided for as slaves, and that more than 200,000 freemen were habitually supplied The histoiy of these distribu- debted. During ^ See on this subject Chastel, histories, Neander's Ecclesiastical ■atvdes historiques sur la Charit S History , and Private Life of the (P&ris, 1853) ; Martin Doisy, Hist, Early Christian Sy and to Migne's ^^ la Charit S pendant les quatre Encyolop Sc Ue, premiers 8ikcle» (Paris, 1848); ^ See the famous epistle of Champagny, Charit S chr Stienne ; Julian to Arsacius, where he Memer, Origines de la Charit S declares that it is shameful that ^Hvpie (Paris, 1863); Eyan, *the Galileans* should support flif«fory of the BJfects of Religion not only their own, but also the *9n9ale E, dn dioc^ Tonron, JERst. c*6toit poor Ini qne Dien i^servoit ' Calmeil, De la Folie, tome L la place qne Lncifer ayoit perdue ; p. The existence, however, of some forms of natural madness was generally admitted ; but the measures for the relief of the unhappy victims were very few, and very ill judged. Among the Christians it first appeared in quarters contiguous to the Mahommedans ; but there is, I think, no real evidence that it was derived fix)m Mahommedan example. znaisons conjectures that the 90 HISTORY OF EUROPEAN MORALS. Sometimes the civil power ordered the reconstruction of Jewish synagogues or heretical churchea which had been illegally destroyed; but the doctrine was early maintained that such a reconstruction was a deadly sin.

185 Relation of Monachism to the Intellectual Virtitea Propriety of the expression * intellectual virtue* . — Manner in which it was regarded by the Church 1 99 Charm of monkish scholarship 203 The monasteries not on the whole &vourable to knowledge . — Compact of Leo and Pepin 266 Effect of monachism on the doctrine of passive obedience . 260 The'benefices* 270 Fascination exercised by Charlemagne over the popular imagi- nation 271 A king and a warrior became the ideal of greatness . To make men virtuous was no more the function of the priest than of the physician. The mul- titude of slaves who embraced the new &ith was one of the i^proaches of the Pagans ; and the names of Blandina, Pota- mia BDa, Eutyches, Yictorinus, and Nereus, show how fully they shared in the suflerings and in the glory of martyr- dom.' The first and grandest edifice of Byzantine architect tore in Italy — ^the noble church of St. of national or personal thanksgiving, on recovery from sick- ness, on the birth of a child, at the hour of death, and, abova all, in testamentaiy beqnests.^ Numerous charters and epi- taphs sti U record the gifb of liberty to slaves throughout the middle ages, * for the benefit of the soul ' of the donor or- testator. 142, 143.) ' Ozanam's Hist, of Civilisation ' Salyian, in a famous passage- in the Fifth Century (Eng. 71 struction of great fortunes through excessive taxation dimi- nished the number of superfluous slaves ; and the fiscal system of the Byzantine Empire, by which agricultural slaves were taxed according to their employments,^ as well as the desire of emperors to encourage agriculture, led the legislators to attach the slaves permanently to the soil. Gregory the Great — ^became speedily general Wlion the Eoman army had captured, but refused to support^ Hovon thousand Persian prisoners, Acacius, Bishop of Arnii JA^ undoicrrod by the bitter hostility of the Persians to Christi- unity, and declaring that 'God had no need of plates or dishes,' sold all the rich church ornaments of his diocese, rescued the unbelieving prisoners, and sent them back un- harmed to their king. Not to dwell upon the many measures taken with this object in ancient Greece, in con- fddering the condition of the Eoman poor we are at once met * See on this subject, Byan, pp. In the time of Julius Csesar no less than 320,000 persons were inscribed as recipients ; but Csesar reduced the number by one half. This emperor desired to restrict the distribution of com to three or four times a year, but, yielding to the jopular wish, he at last consented that it should continue monthly. Under the Antonines the number of the recipients had considerably increased, having sometimes, it is said, exceeded 500,000. Gratuitous distributions were afterwards extended to Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch, and were probably not altogether unknown in smaller towns. Among the Greeks we find Epaminondas ransoming -captiyes, and collecting dowers for poor girls ;^ CSimojn, feeding the hungry and clothing the naked ; ^ Bias, purchaaingy emancipating, and furnishing with dowers some captiye girls of Messina.^ Tacitus has described with enthusiasm how, after a catastrophe near Bome, the rich threw open their houses and taxed all their resources to relieye the suffiarers.* There existed, too, among the poor, both of Greece aud Home, mutual insurance societies, which undertook to pro- ' See Tadt. 17) tells There are several instances in the a story of a Jew who, pretending Lives of the Saints of judgments to be a convert to Christianity, falling on those who duped bene- had been often baptised in different volent Christians. A monk named Thalasius collected blind b^gars in an asylum on the banks of the Euphrates.Maintain attribution Tht Goog Xt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. • 8 Dark views of human nature not common in the early Church . In Edition to the doctrines of eternal suffering, and the lost condition of the human race, the notion of a minute personal retribution must be r^arded as profoundly original. The influence of Christianity in the protection of infant life, though very real, may be, and I think often has been, exaggerated. grati et perfidi non minus doloris * This, at least, is the opinion ex ludibrio sui quam ex ipsa morte of GK)defroy, -who has discussed tli A patiantnr.' — ^Incerti Panegyricua subject very fully. 365, for- bade any Christian criminal,^ and in a.d. From these positions some persons have in- ferred that charity should be coiidemned as a form of unpro- ductive expenditure. 133 alive, he would have suffered her to lemain unmarried. Jam carbasa filise derelictum sed, ut ante jam tendebantur, et remorum ductu dixi, derelictum magnum ses alie- navis in altum protrahebatur. And again: *Vis, Pi Bavus Toxotius supplices manus lector, ejus breviter scire yirtutes? — Hist, of Latin Christianity^ vol ' See a characteristic passage ii. Benedict had laid the Sacrament upon its breast.^ One nun revealed, it is said, after death, that she had been condemned for three days to the fires of purgatory, because she had loved her mother too much.^ Of another saint it is recorded that his benevolence was such that he was never known to be hard or inhuma.n to any one except his relations.^ St. The political cause was the amalgamation of the different nations in one great despotism, which gave indeed an ample field for personal and intellectual freedom, but extinguished the sentiment of nationaliiy and closed almost every sphere of political activity. Diz ans fierce undisciplined soldiers, peril- de services ont plus us^ votre corps ling their own lives and shedding qu'une vie enti^re de penitence . The flrst idea which the phrase ' a very good man' would have suggested to an early Eoman would probably have been that of great and distinguished patriotism, and the passion and interest of such a man in his country's cause were in direct proportion to his moral elevation. alone of the barbarian conquerors 144 m Sl OBT OF SUSOFBAX M0HAX8.Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. PAoa Difference between the moral teaching of a philosophy and that of a- religion 1 Moral efficacy of the Christian sense of sin . 5 The penitential system .« 6 Admirable efficacy of Christianity in eliciting disinterested enthusiasm 8 Great purity of the early Christians 11 The promise of the Church for many centuries falsified . 12 G-eneral sketch of the moral condition of the Byzantine and Western Empires 18 The question to be examined in this chapter is, the cause of this comparatiye failure 17 First Consequence qf Christianity, a new Sense qf the Sanctity of Hwrnaml Afe This sense only yeiy gradually acquired . That the commission of great crimes, or the omission of great ■duties, may be expiated hereafter, was indeed an idea familiar to the Pagans, though it exercised little influence over their lives, and seldom or never produced, even in the case of the worst criminals, those scenes of deathbed repentance whidi Are so conspicuous in Christian biographies. It would be difficult to overrate its influence in the sphere we have next to examine. 367, any one connected with the Palatine,^ being condemned to fight. But, in the first place, all charities that foster habits of forethought and develop new capacities in the poorer classes, such as popular education, or the formadon of savings banks, or insurance companies, or, in many cases, small and discriminating loans, or measures directed to the suppression of dissipation, are in the strictest sense productive ; and the same may be said of many forms of employment, given in exceptional crises through charitable motives; and, in the next place, it is only necessary to remember that the happiness of mankind, to which the accumulation of wealth should only be regarded as a means, is the real object of charity, and it will appear that many forms which are not strictly productive, in the commercial sense, are 'in the highest degree conducive to this end, and have no serious counteracting evil. 9.) he went into his garden, lest the ^ ' Quemadmodum se jam divi- sigfat of the trees should disturb tem non esse sciebat, ita etiam hie mind. patrem se esse neseiret.' — Cassian, Aneniu B could not bear the rust- De Ccmo Morum Institi Ut B, iv. ling of the reeds (ibid.); and a V 126 HISTOBY OF EUBOPEAN MOBALS. * Ferhap B,' she calmly answered, * it was for this very purpose he died, that he should not throw any obstacle in my way.' Her words were more than an answer ; they were an oracle. tendebat in littore, Euffina jam Omnes suos pauperes, pauper ior nnbilis at suas ezpectaret nuptias ipsa dimisit.' — ibid. from disposing of their property in a manner that would not redound to the advantage of their souls. Gregory Nazianzen had made potest juvenis tolerare qnemcnnqao this request, which was faithfully imposuerit laborom qui poterit observed. Bomtialdy the founder of the Camaldolites, counted his father among his spiritual children, and on one occasion punished him by flagellation.* The first nun whom St. The intellectual cause, which was by no means unconnected with the political one, was the gi*owing ascend- i 140 HISTOBT OF EUSOPEAN ICOBALS. Ascetic Chrlstiaiiiiy decisively diverted moral enthusiasm into another channel, and the civic virtues, in consequence, necessarily declined. cause, after the conquest, the Dla- ' See Sismondi, Eist. haye agun and again exhibited the same pbeoomenaii.Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. 82 VI CONTENTS OP PAGB Suppression of the gladiatorial shows 34 Aversion to capital punishments 38 Its effect upon persecutions 40 Penal code not lightened by Christianity 41 Suicide 43-61 Becond Consequence of Clvristianiti/f to teach Universal Brother' hood Laws concerning slavery 62 The Church discipline and services brought master and slave together 66 Consecration of the servile virtues 68 Impulse given to manumission 69 Serfdom . 73 Noble enthusiasm of the Christians in the cause of charity . The doctrine of a future life was far too vague among the Pagans to exercise any powerful general influence, and iunong the philosophers who clung to it most ardently it was regarded solely in the light of a consolation. It was produced by the Christian doctrine of the inestimable value of each immortal soul. apta militise nee ferocia servituti D 2 36 HISTOBY OF EUBOPEAN MORALS. The first trace of it at Eome may be found under Augustus, who gave money and com for the support of young children, who bad previously not been included in the public distributions.^ This appears, however, to have been but an act of isolated benevolence, and the honour of first instituting a systematic effort in this direction belongs to Nerva, who enjoined the support of ])Oor children, not only in Eome, but in all the cities of Italy.^ Trajan greatly extended the system- In Livy, ii. What political economy has effected on the subject may be comprised under two heads. It has also shown that, while unproductive expenditure, such as that which is devoted to amusements or luxury, is undoubtedly beneficial to those who provide it, the fruit perishes in the usage ; while- productive expenditure, such as the manufacture of machines,, or the improvement of the soil, or the extension of commercial enterprise, gives a new impulse to the creation of wealth. On coming back to tbe monastery, he died that very day, and when he was buried, the earth refused to I'eceive so heinous a criminal. It gave the tone to the whole flystem of ethics, and different moral qualities were valued chiefly in proportion to their tendency to form illustrious dtizen B. un seul jour de ces souffirances, morse, in assertion of some shadowy consacr^ au Seigneur, vous aurait shade of orthodox expression, peut-6tre valu un bonheur 6temel.' 142 HISIOBT OF EUBOPEAN M0BAL8. Beligion B have, no doubt, a most real power of evoking a latent energy whichy without their existence, would never have been called into action; but their influence is on the whole probably more attractive than creative.We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Christianity made it a deterrent influence of the strongest kind. It is the dis- tinguishuig and transcendent characteristic of every society into which the spirit of Christianity has passed. purveyors of gladiators, fix)in bribing servants of the palace to enrol themselves as combatants.^ Valentinian, in a.d. It has elucidated more clearly, and in greater detail than had before been done, the effect of provident self-interest in determining the ' Pinel, Trai U midico-ph Uoso- * See the dreadful descriptioa phi^e, pp. It has proved that the first condition of the rapid accumulation of capital is the diversion of money from unproductive to productive channels, and that the amount of accumulated capital is one of the two regulating influences of the wages of the labourer. Jerome describes the scene oculos, pietatom in filios pietate in at her departure with admiring Deum superans. * Descendit ad portum matrem ut Christi probaret ancil- fratre, cognatis, affinibus et quod lam.' — Ep. In another place majus est liberis prosequentibus, he says of her : ' Testis est Jesus, et dementi ssimam matrem pietate ne unum quidem nummum ab ea Tincere cupientibus. His body was repeatedly thrown up fix)m the grave, and it was only suffered to rest in peace when St. The destruction of this spirit in the Eoman Empire was due, as we have seen, to two causes — one of them being political and the other intellectual. They supply the channel in which moral enthusiasm flows, the banner under which it is enlisted, the mould in which it is cast, the ideal to which it tends. In authority for the story of ttie Gkiul, the orthodox clergy favoured treachery, which is not believed the invasions of the Franks, who, bv Gibbon.

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